Teachers spend more time with a child than their own parents do.
Holloway Reading skills are essential to the academic achievement of middle and high school students. After seven or eight years of elementary education, however, many students still lack sufficient proficiency as readers.
Although 8th and 12th graders have steadily improved on a U.
What can secondary educators do to help these learners improve? To address this problem, Nancy Collins searched for underlying causes. She found that the major reasons for lack of reading comprehension among remedial readers at the secondary level are poor motivation, lack of experience, and egocentricity.
Collins concluded that students who are not successful in the classroom have not had experiences with language in meaningful situations. According to Guthrie, Alao, and Rinehartintrinsic motivation for literacy and other academic subjects declines in middle school.
Teachers, however, can help students regain their motivation and improve their reading performance by connecting reading assignments to real-world learning experiences.
In addition, Guthrie and his colleagues believe that teachers must give students self-directed activities, invite collaborative learning, and allow for varied forms of self-expression. When Arlene Barry conducted a national survey on the status of high school reading programs, she discovered a significant reduction in reading services at this level.
Further, her research showed that schools rely heavily on standardized tests for program placement and evaluation. In addition, she found a movement away from pullout programs. Instead, survey respondents expected educators to teach students reading in their content classes.
Barry found, however, that many content teachers resist their role as reading teachers, citing a lack of time, skill, and support.
In fallmore than half of the 9th and 10th graders were reading below the 50th percentile, as measured by the Abbreviated Stanford Achievement Test ASAT. Despite a significant number of dropouts in grades 11 and 12, fewer than 45 percent of the remaining students scored at or above the 50th percentile on the ASAT.
In springteachers established a formal reading course in the secondary curriculum. The reading teachers received extensive staff development, and they designed and implemented curriculum and instructional strategies with a high probability of success for older beginning readers.
The new reading course included extensive reading and vocabulary development, comprehension exercises, and writing. In addition, the new reading course stressed vocabulary building through natural language and through reading in school and at home.
Listening to teachers read was a significant component of the instructional strategy. At the end of the first semester, students gained more than one grade level in reading achievement. This gain was more than four times what we would expect had there been no intervention. At the end of the second semester, the gain was about five times the mean gain that these students had made during a comparable period of time in school.
Ballash maintains that high school teachers must constantly show remedial readers their progress. She also states that to help students develop metacognition, teachers must show them how reading strategies are effective in improving their reading comprehension.Struggling students often mistakenly believe they are reading when they are actually engaged in what researchers call mindless reading (Schooler, Reichle, & Halpern, ), zoning out while staring at the printed page.
The opposite of mindless reading is the processing of text by highly effective readers using cognitive strategies. Teaching reading is a complex process.
The best teachers develop an extensive knowledge base and draw on a repertoire of strategies for working with struggling students. To dig deeper, visit other sections of the website, including Vocabulary, Fluency, and Comprehension. A Research Synthesis know more than ever about teaching reading effectively.
Using the same criteria used by the NRP as well as two additional. What Helps At-Risk Adolescent Readers? It's important to identify the reading styles of adolescents with poor reading skills and to Teaching reading with.
The Adolescent Brain –Learning Strategies & Teaching Tips The adolescent brain is still developing and therefore requires different brain compatible strategies for learning. and Reading Buddies to reduce stress.
• Use Brain Compatible Strategies such as Storytelling and Rhythm, Rhyme, and Rap to make an emotional connection. Teaching reading to adolescent students, therefore, is critical.
Students vary widely in learning styles, developmental levels, and motivations.
Using new methods of teaching reading to students with unique learning styles is central to today’s differentiated learning environment.