In times of peace, we usually ignore the State in favour of partisan political controversies, or personal struggles for office, or the pursuit of party policies. It is the Government rather than the State with which the politically minded are concerned. The State is reduced to a shadowy emblem which comes to consciousness only on occasions of patriotic holiday. Government is obviously composed of common and unsanctified men, and is thus a legitimate object of criticism and even contempt.
Resek writes, "In its proper place it [the saying] meant that mindless power thrived on war because war corrupted a nation's moral fabric and especially corrupted its intellectuals. To grasp this complexity, it is necessary to explore the theoretical contexts within which the saying originated.
The State, Government, and Society Bourne argues that, in times of peace, the majority of people do not give much thought to the State, but deal instead with the Government, which may be viewed as the practical day-to-day "offices and functions" of a State.
Bourne defined Government as "a framework of the administration of laws, and the carrying out of the public force. Government is the idea of the State put into practical operation in the hands of definite, concrete, fallible men.
The people whose jobs make Government function, such as postal workers and grade school teachers, have no sense of sanctity about them. They are what Bourne describes as "common and unsanctified men.
Thus, in times of peace, "the sense of the State almost fades out of the consciousness of men. The American State is more of a concept than a physical reality.
It is the political structure established by the American Revolution, which is embodied by the Constitution and Bill of Rights. Governments come and go but the State remains essentially the same. It is the State, not Government, that inspires emotions such as awe or patriotism within its citizenry because the State is considered to be sanctified by history and by the popular will.
It is to the concept of the American State -- not to any particular Government, Republican or Democratic -- that people pledge allegiance with hands placed over their hearts.
Another key to understanding what is 'America' is the concept of "society", which Bourne refers to as "nation" or "country. These non-political factors are what make the American society different from a Chinese or French society. They constitute 'the American way. For example, most people define themselves more in relation to a community, religion, or ethnic heritage than in relation to a political party.
Unlike Government, society is not expression of the State, nor can it peacefully co-exist with the State because the two concepts are antagonistic. In an essay entitled "The State," Bourne observes, "Country [society] is a concept of peace, tolerance, of living and letting live.
But State is essentially a concept of power, of competition; it signifies a group in its aggressive aspects. And we have the misfortune of being born not only into a country but into a State, and as we grow up we learn to mingle the two feelings into a hopeless confusion. Yet the lines separating these three concepts, or institutions, are not clearly drawn.
The Impact of War Bourne defines war as the ultimate act of Statehood, of "a group in its aggressive aspects," which could not exist with the State.Randolph Bourne famously wrote, “War is the health of the State.” This has long been the byword for anti-war, anti-state libertarians, and rightly so.
But Bourne did not mean exactly what most. Randolph Bourne left an unfinished, unpaginated draft of The State when he died during the flu pandemic of The draft was published posthumously, with some material incorrectly ordered, in Untimely Papers ().
This edition follows the corrected ordering used in most printed editions of Bourne’s work. Randolph Silliman Bourne (/ b ɔːr n /; May 30, – December 22, ) was a progressive writer and intellectual born in Bloomfield, New Jersey, and a graduate of Columbia r-bridal.com is best known for his essays, especially his unfinished work "The State," discovered after his death.
In an essay titled “The State”, Randolph Bourne, an American writer, made a distinction between a country and a state that I find crucial. He described one’s . Randolph Bourne's articles appeared in a magazine, The Seven Arts.
Two of his essays, The War and the Intellectuals and War is the Health of the State appear on this site. I hope that these may prompt a new generation's student to pursue further research into the brief life and ideas of a man who, as Dos Passos wrote, does indeed have a ghost.
On the other hand, had this collection included "The State", I would have no complaint, for "The State" is the healthiest of Randolph Bourne. "The State", an unfinished essay written at the time of World War I, had long been out of print.