Behavior Behavior refers to the movement of some part of an organism that changes some aspect of the environment. Operant conditioning Operant behavior is the so-called "voluntary" behavior that is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences.
Types[ edit ] Social influence is a broad term that relates to Influential behavior different phenomena. Listed below are some major types of social influence that are being researched in the field of social psychology.
For more information, follow the main article links provided. Kelman's varieties[ edit ] There are three processes of attitude change as defined by Harvard psychologist Herbert Kelman in a paper published in the Journal of Conflict Resolution.
Compliance psychology Compliance is the act of responding favorably to an explicit or implicit request offered by others. Technically, compliance is a change in behavior but not necessarily in attitude; one can comply due to mere obedience or by otherwise opting to withhold private thoughts due to social pressures.
Identification psychology Identification is the changing of attitudes or behaviors due to the influence of someone who is admired. Advertisements that rely upon celebrity Influential behavior to market their products are taking advantage of this phenomenon. Influential behavior to Kelman, the desired relationship that the identifier relates to the behavior or attitude change.
Internalization Internalization is the process of acceptance of a set of norms established by people or groups that are influential to the individual. The individual accepts the influence because the content of the influence accepted is intrinsically rewarding.
It is congruent with the individual's value system, and according to Kelman the "reward" of internalization is "the content of the new behavior".
Conformity Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change in behavior, belief, or thinking to align with those of others or with normative standards. It is the most common and pervasive form of social influence.
Social psychology research in conformity tends to distinguish between two varieties: Conformity from peer pressure generally results from identification with the group members or from compliance of some members to appease others.
Conformity can be in appearance, or may be more complete in nature; impacting an individual both publicly and privately.
Compliance also referred to as acquiescence demonstrates a public conformity to a group majority or norm, while the individual continues to privately disagree or dissent, holding on to their original beliefs or to an alternative set of beliefs differing from the majority.
Compliance appears as conformity, but there is a division between the public and the private self. Conversion includes the private acceptance that is absent in compliance.
The individual's original behaviour, beliefs, or thinking changes to align with that of others the influencersboth publicly and privately. The individual has accepted the behavior, belief, or thinking, and has internalized it, making it his own.
Conversion may also refer to individual members of a group changing from their initial and varied opinions to adopt the opinions of others, which may differ from their original opinions.
The resulting group position may be a hybrid of various aspects of individual initial opinions, or it may be an alternative independent of the initial positions reached through consensus. What appears to be conformity may in fact be congruence.
Congruence occurs when an individual's behavior, belief, or thinking is already aligned with that of the others, and no change occurs. In situations where conformity including compliance, conversion, and congruence is absent, there are non-conformity processes such as independence and anti-conformity.
Independence, also referred to as dissent, involves an individual either through their actions or lack of action, or through the public expression of their beliefs or thinking being aligned with their personal standards but inconsistent with those of other members of the group either all of the group or a majority.
Anti-conformity, also referred to as counter-conformity, may appear as independence, but it lacks alignment with personal standards and is for the purpose of challenging the group.
Actions as well as stated opinions and beliefs are often diametrically opposed to that of the group norm or majority.
Minority influence Minority influence takes place when a majority is influenced to accept the beliefs or behaviors of a minority. Minority influence can be affected by the sizes of majority and minority groups, the level of consistency of the minority group, and situational factors such as the affluence or social importance of the minority.
Self-fulfilling prophecy A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true due to positive feedback between belief and behavior. A prophecy declared as truth when it is actually false may sufficiently influence people, either through fear or logical confusion, so that their reactions ultimately fulfill the once-false prophecy.
This term is credited to sociologist Robert K. Merton from an article he published in Reactance psychology Reactance is the adoption of a view contrary to the view that a person is being pressured to accept, perhaps due to a perceived threat to behavioral freedoms.Factors that affect human behavior include attitude, perception, genetics, culture, social norms and ethics of a society, religious inclination, coercion and influence by authority.
Human behavior is defined as the range of actions and behaviors exhibited by humans at certain stages of development. Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive, deceptive, or underhanded tactics.
By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at another's expense, such methods could be considered exploitative, abusive, .
An understanding of consumer purchase behavior must be based on knowledge of human emotion and include the paramount influence that emotions have on decision-making. SHARE TWEET. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.
It is the applied form of behavior analysis; the other two forms are radical behaviorism (or the philosophy of the science) and the experimental analysis of behavior (or basic experimental research).
Aug 01, · Technically, culture is always "in the news," and not just in the arts and entertainment section of our newspapers. It is like unacknowledged water to a fish, or the oxygen we breathe.
Yet. We are always looking for great examples of influential leadership to share with you. The other day I was thinking about who would be great Australian business leaders to interview on the principles of influential leadership and one particular leader came to mind.