Early life of Shivaji Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivnerinear the city of Junnar in what is now Pune district. Scholars disagree on his date of birth.
The government of Maharashtra lists 19 February as a holiday commemorating Shivaji's birth Shivaji Jayanti. BijapurAhmednagarand Golkonda. Shahaji often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughalsbut always kept his jagir fiefdom at Pune and his small army with him.
His studies of the Hindu epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharataalso influenced his lifelong defence of Hindu values.
Having made peace with the Mughals, ceding them six forts, he went to serve the Sultanate of Bijapur. He moved Shivaji and Jijabai from Shivneri to Pune and left them in the care of his jagir administrator, Dadoji Konddeo.
Dadoji has been credited with overseeing the education and training of young Shivaji.
He married Saibai from the prominent Nimbalkar family in Following his father's release, Shivaji resumed raiding, and inunder controversial circumstances, killed Chandrarao Morea fellow Maratha feudatory of Bijapur, and seized from him the valley of Javali. Having ended his conflict with the Mughals and having a greater ability to respond, in Adilshah sent Afzal Khana veteran general, to arrest Shivaji.
Before engaging him, the Bijapuri forces desecrated the Tulja Bhavani Templeholy to Shivaji's family, and the Vithoba temple at Pandharpura major pilgrimage site for the Hindus. After two months, Afzal Khan sent an envoy to Shivaji suggesting the two leaders meet in private outside the fort to parley.
The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword, and attended by one follower. Shivaji, either suspecting Afzal Khan would arrest or attack him,   or secretly planning to attack himself,  wore armour beneath his clothes, concealed a bagh nakh metal "tiger claw" on his left arm, and had a dagger in his right hand.
The captured enemy, both officers and men, were set free and sent back to their homes with money, food and other gifts. Marathas were rewarded accordingly. At that time, Shivaji was encamped at Panhala fort with his forces.
Siddi Jauhar's army besieged Panhala in mid, cutting off supply routes to the fort. During the bombardment of Panhala, Siddi Jahuar purchased grenades from the British at Rajapur to increase his efficacy, and also hired some English artillerymen to bombard the fort, conspicuously flying a flag used by the English.
This perceived betrayal angered Shivaji, who in December would exact revenge by plundering the English factory at Rajapur and capturing four of the factors, imprisoning them until mid Baji Prabhu Deshpande was wounded but continued to fight until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishalgad,  signalling Shivaji had safely reached the fort, on the evening of 13 July Shivaji offered his assistance to Aurangzebthe Mughal viceroy of the Deccan and son of the Mughal emperor, in conquering Bijapur in return for formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession.
Dissatisfied with the Mughal response, and receiving a better offer from Bijapur, he launched a raid into the Mughal Deccan.
However, Aurangzeb's countermeasures against Shivaji were interrupted by the rainy season and his battle of succession with his brothers for the Mughal throne following the illness of the emperor Shah Jahan.
Battle of Chakan and Battle of Surat Upon the request of Badi Begum of Bijapur, Aurangzeb, now the Mughal emperor, sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khanwith an army numbering overalong with a powerful artillery division in January to attack Shivaji in conjunction with Bijapur's army led by Siddi Jauhar.
Shaista Khan, with his better—equipped and —provisioned army of 80, seized Pune.
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He also took the nearby fort of Chakanbesieging it for a month and a half before breaching the walls. They overcame the palace guards, breached the wall, and entered Shaista Khan's quarters, killing those they found there. Shaista Khan escaped, losing his thumb in the melee, but one of his sons and several of his wives  were killed.
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