Written in tetrameterthe greater Alcaic consists of a spondee or iamb followed by an iamb plus a long syllable and two dactyls. The lesser Alcaic, also in tetrameter, consists of two dactylic feet followed by two iambic feet. Though seldom appearing in English poetry, Alcaic verse was used by Tennyson in his ode, Milton.
Means and Ends The dialectic of Means and Ends is of deep historical, ethical and political significance. Both Means and Ends are therefore processes which are in greater or lesser contradiction with one another throughout their development — constituting a learning process of continual adjustment of both Means and Ends in the light of experience — until, at the completion of the process, Means and End merge in a form of life-activity, which is both its own End and its own Means.
The dialectic of Means and Ends is manifested in certain maxims which express aspects of the dialectic in a one-sided or limited way.
The problem here is simply to mistake the socialist imaginary for an End, and to understand the End to the antithesis of subject and object of socialist agitation to be to bring into being a socialist utopia. The socialist utopia is an ethical precept rather than a state of affairs which has to be brought about.
As Marx said in The German Ideology: We call communism the real movement which abolishes the present state of things.
The conditions of this movement result from the premises now in existence. Whenever a radical group finds itself with such an absolute contradiction between means and ends perhaps resulting from a gradual change in conditions, a weakening of its basethen it should consider re-orienting itself towards the critique of existing conditions, since these conditions necessarily provide the means for their own critique.
Although few would openly proclaim such a cynical maxim, it is clearly the conception which justified the atrocities of Stalinism and the use of terror by some who claimed to be pursuing the socialist objective.
The idea that some means such as the use of violence against political opponents, or lying to the working class which is inconsistent with the aim socialism, world peace can in some way serve that end is untenable.
But the means must be adequate to the ends; that is to say, the means must be such that attaining the End will mean the fullest development and flowering of the Means. So the idea, for example, that deceiving the working class could be any part of the struggle for socialism is an absurdity, because the fullest development of the Means deceiving the working class could only be the disorganisation and subordination of the working class, the opposite of socialism.
So a claim that such unprincipled means are justified because they serve the End of socialism is false; in fact, base means can never serve noble ends. The process of Means and Ends is a process of the manifestation of Means in the form of the Realised End, and the contradiction between Abstract End and Realised End transforming the conception of Means and Ends, much like the continual adaption of species in a changing environment of which the species is itself a part.
The adequate Means becomes itself an End, the discovery of which itself entails certain Means; on the other hand, an adequate conception of the End is a powerful Means in its own right. Means of Production The tools instruments and the raw material subject you use to create something are the means of production.
If we examine the whole process from the point of view of its result, the product, it is plain that both the instruments and the subject of labourare means of production, and that the labour itself is productive labour.
Karl Marx See also: Labour and Productive Forces Measure The unity of quantity and quality: For example, we know the measure of water: This dialectic was popularised by Engels as one of the Laws of Dialectics. Quality is change which by which a thing becomes something else; Quantity is change wherein something still remains what it is.
Mechanical Materialism Mechanical Materialism refers to those forms of materialist thinking which gained strength from the gains of natural science beginning from the work of Newton and others in explaining the world in terms of the action of objects upon one another according to fixed laws of nature, expressed in terms of forces.
Mechanical materialism is the science of things rather than of processes i. The materialism of the 18th century was predominantly mechanical, because at that time, of all natural sciences, only mechanics, and indeed only the mechanics of solid bodies -- celestial and terrestrial -- in short, the mechanics of gravity, had come to any definite close.
Chemistry at that time existed only in its infantile, phlogistic form. Biology still lay in swaddling clothes; vegetable and animal organisms had been only roughly examined and were explained by purely mechanical causes. What the animal was to Descarte, man was to the materialists of the 18th century -- a machine.
This exclusive application of the standards of mechanics to processes of a chemical and organic nature -- in which processes the laws of mechanics are, indeed, also valid, but are pushed into the backgrounds by other, higher laws -- constitutes the first specific but at that time inevitable limitations of classical French materialism.
The second specific limitation of this materialism lay in its inability to comprehend the universe as a process, as matter undergoing uninterrupted historical development. This was in accordance with the level of the natural science of that time, and with the metaphysical, that is, anti-dialectical manner of philosophizing connected with it.
Nature, so much was known, was in eternal motion. But according to the ideas of that time, this motion turned, also eternally, in a circle and therefore never moved from the spot; it produced the same results over and over again.
Mechanisation and Automation Mechanisation refers to that stage in the development of tools and machinery where the tool passes from being an appendage of the labourer, enhancing one or another of her own powers, to a point where the machine controls the labour process and the labourer is reduced to an appendage of the machine, executing partial operations within a whole process dominated by the capacities of the machine.
Mechanisation is characterised by products of deadening uniformity and labour of an abstract, repetitive and meaningless character. Automation is characterised by rapid change, variety and flexibility in the product up to the capacity of the ultimate consumer interacting with the machine.
See Toyotism For Marx and Engels, the understanding of changes in the labour process is the most basic question of all: And it really is the source — next to nature, which supplies it with the material that it converts into wealth.
But it is even infinitely more than this. It is the prime basic condition for all human existence, and this to such an extent that, in a sense, we have to say that labour created man himself.
The workpeople are thus continually both repelled and attracted, hustled from pillar to post, while, at the same time, constant changes take place in the sex, age, and skill of the levies. Thus changes in the labour process bring forth changes in the composition of the working class, pushing whole layers of society into the background while calling forth others, and have profound effects on the whole culture of an epoch.The contents of paragraphs C and D would vary with the poem.
Usually, paragraph C would indicate the actual or imagined circumstances of the poem (the situation), if these call for explanation, and would then state the subject and outline its development.
To figure out things such as when to use who or whom or lay or lie, you need to be able to identify the subject and object of a sentence.. Fortunately, it's easy! The subject is the person or thing doing something, and the object is having something done to it.
The subject recognizes that the object is a "res extensa" and this means, that the object cannot have essence or existence without the acknowledgment through the subject. The subject posits the world in the first place and the subject is posited by God.
I is a subject pronoun, and it is the subject of the sentence. When pronouns are used in prepositional phrases, do you think that they should be subject pronouns or object pronouns? Remember that we're talking about objects of the preposition.
Tarski, Alfred (). Polish-American logician who defended a correspondence theory of truth in The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages () and The Semantic Conception of Truth and the Foundations of Semantics (). According to Tarski, we must distinguish between a formal language and its interpretation as applicable within a specific domain, in order to define the truth of.
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