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Etymology[ edit ] Development of derechos Composite radar image of the June North American derecho a progressive derecho as it moved from Indiana to Virginia A typical multi-bow serial derecho A typical progressive derecho Derecho comes from the Spanish word in adjective form for "straight" or "direct"in contrast with a tornado which is a "twisted" wind.
The resultant mesoscale convective system MCS forms at the point of the best upper level divergence in the wind pattern in the area of best low level inflow.
When the convection is strong linear or curved, the MCS is called a squall line, with the feature placed at the leading edge of the significant wind shift and pressure rise. Squall lines typically bow out due to the formation of a mesoscale high pressure system which forms within the stratiform rain area behind the initial line.
This high pressure area is formed due to strong descending motion behind the squall line, and could come in the form of a downburst. Warm season derechos in the Northern Hemisphere form in west to northwesterly flow at mid levels of the troposphere with moderate to high levels of instability.
Derechos form within environments of low-level warm air advection and significant low-level moisture. Some studies add a requirement that no more than two or three hours separate any two successive wind reports.
They have a distinctive appearance on radar known as a bow echo with several unique features, such as the rear inflow notch and bookend vorticesand usually they manifest two or more downbursts.
There are four types of derechos: This type of serial derecho is less common than the multi-bow kind. An example of a single-bow serial derecho is the derecho that occurred in association with the October North American storm complex.
One example of a multi-bow serial derecho is a derecho that occurred during the Storm of the Century in Florida. This is a much more common type of serial derecho than the single-bow kind. Multi-bow serial derechos can be associated with line echo wave patterns on weather radar.
Tornado formation is less common in a progressive than serial type. Similar to serial derechos and progressive derechos, these types of derechos are associated with a deep low, but are relatively small in size.
An example is the Late-May tornado outbreak and derecho that moved through the central Northern Plains and the Southern Great Lakes on 30—31 May Such derechos most often occur between late fall and early spring in association with strong low pressure systems. Low dewpoint derechos are essentially organized bands of successive, dry downbursts.
The Utah-Wyoming derecho of 31 May was an event of this type. Some upper-air measurements used for severe-weather forecasting may reflect this point of diminishing return for tornado formation, and the mentioned three situations were instances during which the rare Particularly Dangerous Situation severe thunderstorm variety of severe weather watches were issued from the Storm Prediction Center of the U.
They may have a central eye free of precipitation, with a minimum central pressure and surrounding bands of strong convection, but are really associated with an MCS developing multiple squall lines, and are not tropical in nature.
These storms have a warm core, like other mesoscale convective systems. One such derecho occurred across the midwestern U. The system re-intensified after leaving the Ohio Valley, starting to form a large hook, with occasional hook echoes appearing along its eastern side.
A surface low pressure center formed and became more impressive later in the day. Interior Highlands most commonly from Oklahoma and across the Ohio Valley. North DakotaMinnesota and upper Michigan are also vulnerable to derecho storms when such conditions are in place. They often occur along stationary fronts on the northern periphery of where the most intense heat and humidity bubble exists.
Late-year derechos are normally confined to Texas and the Deep Southalthough a late-summer derecho struck upper parts of the New York State area after midnight on 7 September Warm season derechos have greater instability than their cold season counterpart, while cool season derechos have greater shear than their warm season counterpart.
Although these storms most commonly occur in North America, derechos can occur elsewhere in the world, although infrequently. Outside North America, they sometimes are called by different names. For example, in Bangladesh and adjacent portions of India, a type of storm known as a "Nor'wester" may be a progressive derecho.
They have occurred in Argentina and South Africa as well, and on rarer occasions, close to or north of the 60th parallel in northern Canada. Primarily a mid-latitudes phenomenon, derechos do occur in the Amazon Basin of Brazil.Get the latest news and analysis in the stock market today, including national and world stock market news, business news, financial news and more.
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